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Egyptian and Greek Plumbing Systems

We are incredibly lucky in the western world to have sophisticated plumbing systems that allow us to access fresh water and to have our wastewater removed. This has allowed us to virtually eradicate waterborne viruses such as typhoid and cholera. These conditions still affect much of the developing world. The pipe networks in our homes are made from a combination of plastic and copper, with Copper Pipe Connectors like the ones from watkinspowis.co.uk/products/copper-pipe-fittings-and-press-systems/ joining the pipes together.

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Plumbing systems have developed over hundreds of years. There were bathrooms on the island of Crete where Minoan kings had hot and cold running water in their bathrooms. During the Minoan period, the Minoan Palace of Knossos used ceramic bathtubs, as well as the world’s first flushing toilet complete with drainage system.

Historically, the first plumbing pipes were made from baked clay and straw, while the first copper pipes were developed by the Egyptians. The Egyptians dug wells as deep as 300 feet to find water, and the water wheel was born as a result of their search for water. Bathrooms were built for the dead by the Egyptians for the first and only time in history.

A great deal of progress was made in the art and science of plumbing by the Greeks. During the ancient Greek era, hot and cold running water, as well as bathtubs, were a part of everyday life. As a result of the Olympic games, the Greeks developed a technology that advanced their showers to provide athletes with a comfortable place to relieve themselves after the games, which consisted of overhead pipes and sculpted shower heads.

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The Romans then further developed these ancient technologies.

It is believed that the Romans built channels of water more than 1000 years ago, which carried water from the mountains to the city, which was then distributed through underground water supply lines made of lead, which carried water from the mountains into the city. This is where the term ‘plumbing’ originated from, as the word ‘Plumus’ in Latin means ‘lead’. There is also evidence that these lead pipes carried water to the Roman Baths, which were supplied with hot water, which was heated by wood and furnaces. As a result of pumping hot air through channels beneath the floor of these baths, elaborate steam rooms were created. The sewer pipes carried waste water to the Tiber river, which was then emptied into the water. As far as sewer pipes are concerned, the Cloaca Maxima, which had already been built half a century earlier, was by far the largest in terms of carrying wastewater.

How Technology is Being Used in Cleaning

Cleaning companies are undergoing radical changes thanks to the latest technological innovations. Thanks to new cleaning products and robots, the industry is becoming safer, more transparent, and more affordable. Additionally, technology is also making the industry more transparent and safe, while also making customers’ needs more important. Robotic mops and vacuum cleaners have taken over the mops and broom role, and smartphone apps help consumers identify safe cleaning products.

Robots and drones are already transforming the cleaning industry, and they’ll continue to grow in the coming years. Robots can clean a variety of surfaces, including high-touch surfaces such as escalator rails, door handles, and elevator buttons. Robots can also be programmed to clean light switches, while robots equipped with UV-lights can clean glass surfaces. The benefits of these new innovations are endless.

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Software and cloud-based services help cleaning companies manage their resources. These systems allow managers to track activity and analyze data to help them make better decisions. The software also helps reduce manual errors in reporting. Cleaning companies generate more data than they realise, so it is vital to use it to keep up with the competition. With smart device applications, cleaning companies can empower their workforce and generate accurate data that can inform decisions. For example, smart devices can track the number of jobs performed and how long each employee spends at a location.

New innovations in cleaning are changing the way spaces operate. While humans will always remain essential, new technologies are improving the cleanliness of public rooms and spaces. They also improve safety. Using technology can make cleaning more efficient and help cut unnecessary costs. This will lead to increased user trust. It will also help businesses enhance the process and boost their reputation. So, what are you waiting for? Make sure you take advantage of the latest innovations in cleaning. For advice on Contract Cleaning Cheltenham, visit biggreencleaning.co.uk/

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New high-tech cleaning supplies and robotics are paving the way for environmentally-friendly, eco-friendly cleaning. High-tech cleaning products help protect the environment and conserve water, which is important in areas like dry climates. Robotics can complete routine tasks faster, and will save cleaning teams valuable time. This will benefit both your customers and your workers, and will help the cleaning industry deliver accurate data. Achieving greater customer satisfaction will ensure a healthy and safe environment.

Using these innovative cleaning methods will ensure the highest quality of work while saving the company money. If you’re wondering whether or not technology can improve cleaning, consider these benefits.

 

Things to consider before hiring a Tree Surgeon

Before hiring a tree surgeon, you should check their educational background and affiliations. Membership in a professional association can also show you are up to date on the latest techniques and procedures in tree surgery. Also, you should always request for a written quote from each tree surgeon before hiring them. Avoid choosing a tree surgeon who offers you the lowest price, as this may be an indication of substandard work. Check to see if the company has liability insurance and employee insurance. It is also important to confirm their qualifications to carry out climbing work.

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In addition to insurance, you should look for a licensed arborist. The profession requires a high degree of expertise. Tree surgeons should have formal training, a proven track record of safe work and substantial experience. You can find out more about the profession’s qualifications. Take the time to research tree surgeons in your area. You’ll be glad you did. For a reliable Tree Surgeon Gloucester, contact geoffreyurchcontracts.co.uk/residential-gardens/tree-surgery/tree-surgeon-gloucester/

Another important factor to look out for is insurance coverage. Any tree surgeon should be insured. Without insurance, a tree surgeon could cause damage and even lead to injury or death. A tree surgeon should be able to disclose any damage they may cause and whether the insurer will cover it or not. If you’re paying for a consultation, make sure they’re aware of any conditions in your area.

Tree surgeons must carry public liability insurance. This is crucial because they are responsible for removing trees and pruning them. They should be experienced and skilled. You should also look for a tree surgeon who has experience in the area of work that you want done. Ultimately, hiring a tree surgeon can be a rewarding experience for you and your garden needs. A good tree surgeon will have a passion for trees and their welfare. A good arborist will always put the welfare of the tree and the needs of the client above their own financial interest.

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Lastly, it is vital to know that the tree surgeon you’re considering is licensed and insured. A company without proper licensing may be a rogue trader or don’t follow local guidelines. Regardless of how much experience your tree surgeon has, he or she must be transparent about their processes and payment arrangements. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck paying for services that didn’t meet your expectations. That’s why it’s important to communicate well and make sure you understand all aspects of the job.

 

Three Ways to Style a Smaller Bedroom

A bedroom is a place where you should be able to relax and unwind, and of course get a good night’s sleep. Bedrooms come in many shapes and sizes and some bedrooms can be tiny. If you are struggling with how best to go about furnishing, styling and simply making the most of a smaller bedroom, here are some ideas that could help you…

Storage – When space is at a premium, storage has to be more carefully thought out than ever. Make the most of every available space in a smaller bedroom. Think about adding shelving over the bed, using the bed itself for storage, such as the clever bookcase headboard idea, which also makes for a great feature wall, and utilise built in storage solutions that is made specifically for you like these bespoke fitted wardrobes lamco-design.co.uk/bespoke-fitted-wardrobes/

Something else to think about, especially in a more unusually shaped room, is how you can use small areas and corners to create more storage, to make the most of the space that you have available in the room.

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Layout – The layout may need to be played around with in a smaller bedroom. In a larger room, traditionally the bed goes right in the centre, but this can make a smaller bedroom seem far more cramped and take up a lot of space unnecessarily. Furniture that is all against one wall can really open the space out a lot more, giving the feeling of space. Think about furniture that can be tucked away when not in use – beds like cabin beds are great for this, as they incorporate a desk and workspace which can then be stored under the bed when they are not being used.

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Colour and Décor – A lot of making the most of a smaller room comes down to how the room is decorated. Using two colours of paint, the darker colour on the bottom half of the wall and lighter on top, with a border or dado rail can give a much more spacious feeling to the room and can easily be adapted to suit a kids or an adults room. Lighter colours generally tend to open a room up more, but you can add interest by adding an area of colour that is darker or bolder as a focus and to add interest.

The quiet hit called Cocoon

Sometimes some films come along and surprise you. Cocoon was one of those films. Surprisingly uplifting and upbeat, it deals with the inhabitants of a retirement home who are starting to feel their age. Unlike the people who have bought one of the Gloucester Park Homes for Sale, they are unstimulated and bored. If they’d looked at Gloucester Park Homes for Sale, they would have found a vibrant and happy community of like-minded people who are active and healthy. The film itself was seen by 20th Century Fox as a sleeper release, cheaply made, but it might return a bit of a profit. The kind of film you’d see if the majors were too busy. In fact, the film took $85 million at the box office. Not bad as it was only made for $17.5 million.

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Next door to the retirement home of Ben, Arthur and Joe is a swimming pool. The elderly men are keen to go swimming, bored as they are in the home, and they sneak into what they believe is an abandoned one in the house next door. They begin to lark around and start to feel young again. However, they also find that this isn’t just forgotten youthful high jinks; they really can do things that they could in their younger ages.

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One night, after bringing in their wives to the pool as well, they are discovered. It turns out the strange rocks in the pool are actually the survival pods of a lost alien race. They are slowly being revived so that they can return to their home planet. However, the leader of the Aliens, Walter, is not an unkindly person and says that the 6 of them can use the pool as it will revitalise them.

However, the abilities of the couples begin to be noticed. The evidence is confirmed when one of the wives, in remembrance of her youth, starts to climb a tree. One of the residents has seen the group sneaking out and using the pool. The whole retirement home descends on the pool and jumps in. Whilst they can start to feel the benefits of the water, the aliens arrive and dismiss them. He reveals that the life force of the pool has been totally drained, and all the aliens they are trying to save will not be revived. In fact, one of the cocoons is damaged, and the alien inside is able to pass its lifeforce on before it passes.

Tips For Keeping Garden Flowers Healthy

One of the most important tips for keeping your flowers healthy is to look after the roots. Flowers have a vascular system in their stems that draws up water and nutrients through the roots. Unless your soil is healthy, this could affect its ability to absorb water and nutrients.

When planting flowers, make sure to dig the holes deep enough. Then, place the root of the flower in the hole. Cover the roots with soil. This will prevent air pockets and prevent water seepage. Plant flowers close to each other, as close proximity allows them to share nutrients and water with neighbouring plants. This will make the blooms bigger. In addition, plants planted close together will receive more sunlight and water. The same is true of soil conditions.

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Watering your flowers regularly is also essential. Flowers need water every day during the summer, and if you don’t water them properly, they may wither. Then, during the cooler seasons, you should only water them weekly, while you should try not to over-water them. For best results, you can visit the local nurseries. They can help you determine the correct watering schedule and fertilization frequency.

Pruning is another important part of flower care. Some plants require a whole shearing process, while others can be pruned by snipping individual flower heads. Regardless of what type of pruning method you choose, it’s important to be consistent in your pruning routine. It will encourage more blooming and keep the flowers looking great. You can also plant companion plants that will help your plants grow more efficiently and naturally. If you notice any disease or issues, consider Black Spot On Roses Remedy from https://greenacresdirect.co.uk/sulphur-rose-black-spot-on-roses-remedy

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Insects can ruin your flower plants. Try to avoid leaving weeds and rubbish around your flowers. Using traps or barriers will help protect your flowers from pests. Another tip for keeping your flowers healthy is to pinch the stem tips of plants to encourage lateral growth and a better shape. In this way, you will have a better chance of getting a beautiful bloom. If you are planning on growing more flowers, be sure to buy organic flower fertilizer.

Remember that sunlight is the main source of energy for plants. Certain flowers need full-sun exposure for six hours or more each day. Read the plant tags and ask a garden centre expert about what you should do. Once you’ve decided the ideal time for pruning, make sure to keep your flowers in the best light. When you follow these tips, you’ll be enjoying your flowers for many years to come.

 

When your Business Could Do With the Help of a Business Coach

Something which is becoming more and more popular in the world of business is business coaching. A business coach, like this Stroud business coach www.randall-payne.co.uk/services/business-advisory/business-coaching is helpful when you are running a business, and brings knowledge and experience that is invaluable to business owners, particularly if you are new to running a business yourself.

These are three situations that you may find yourself in where you require the services of a business coach…

Helping your Business to Grow

If your business is small, maybe a one-man band or just you and a partner, and you want to grow your business and take it to the next level, a business coach will help you to get it there. Maybe you have some doubts or hesitancy about taking risks, and are worried about making the wrong choices? A business coach brings a fresh outside perspective, as well as the knowledge that it takes to grow the business successfully. Having someone on your side whilst you make those kinds of decisions will also be a comfort and support to you.

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In Need of Advice

Many people who set up a business can quickly start to feel a little lost and out of their depth. There is so much involved in running a business and this can become apparent early on, leading to many people suddenly feeling as if they have no idea what they are doing which could also result in a loss of confidence. A business coach is brilliant in times like this, as they will help and advise you, using the skills and knowledge that they have to help you to grow in confidence and to become more knowledgeable about what you are doing.

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A New Project or Direction

If you have decided to go in another direction with your business, start a new project or new product range or expand your area that you cover, then a business coach will be able to help you as you go through this stage. If you need help with a strategy that is likely to work and get you to where you want to be, then business coaching is ideal for you and your business.

Three Great Reasons to Add Electric Gates to Your Property

If you are thinking of getting some new gates for your home, either to replace some that have seen better days, or as a completely new addition, something that many people love for both homes and businesses are electric gates. There are many reasons why going for electric gates is a good idea, here are just a few of them…

Security – Burglary is something that all of us want to prevent, but sadly, it can happen anywhere.  Making sure that your home is as secure as it can be is important, and electric gates are a great way to add that extra security to your home.  It is a good idea to go to a professional, like this electric gate company Cheltenham completegateautomation.co.uk/ as they will be able to advise you on what is best suited to you and your home, and also install them for you.

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Automated gates are a great way to control who has entry to your property, and it may also reduce your insurance payments too. The security of automated gates also works the other way, and if you have young children or dogs, then you know that they are safe and are not able to wander out of the driveway.

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Convenience – Having electric gates is so much more convenient. Whether you are arriving home from a busy day at work, or leaving the house in the pouring rain, with electric gates you don’t need to get out of your car to open and close them. They are also great for people who have a disability, or can struggle with mobility, as it is as simple as pressing a button. There are many reasons for why the convenience of having gates that open this easily are so popular for their convenience!

The Value of your Property – If you are looking to sell in the future, or simply want to increase the value of the property, electric gates are the way forward. Not only do they look great, but they also are a great selling point that will attract buyers. The privacy and additional security that they bring to the property will be as attractive to potential buyers as their first impressions of the property.

Tips For Preventive Maintenance For Your Vehicle

Nowadays, many vehicles are built to last longer and run better than the ones used twenty years ago. That means less maintenance is required. But, many car owners still don’t conduct the necessary preventive maintenance for their vehicles. This neglect can lead to major problems down the road. To help you prevent future mechanical issues, follow these tips. It is never too early to start performing preventive maintenance for your vehicle. Performing these simple procedures will help you maximise the lifespan of your vehicle.

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Check the owner’s manual for detailed information about your vehicle. It contains the recommended maintenance schedule and illustrations of the different parts of the vehicle. You can also use the manual to understand how to perform the necessary maintenance. The owner’s manual should also contain illustrations to help you locate components around the vehicle. Always refer to the manual and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for maintenance.

Change your oil regularly. Oil should be changed at least once every six months. Checking the oil level can catch problems before they happen. Slow leaks deplete the oil level over a long period of time. Regular oil changes prevent future problems from occurring. By maintaining your vehicle, you’ll be keeping yourself and your passengers safe. If you’re unfamiliar with any part of your vehicle, contact a mechanic in your area.

Check your tyres regularly. A properly inflated tyre will prevent other damages. A proper tyre pressure is essential for safety and good fuel mileage. Checking your tyres’ PSI often will help you determine the recommended pressure level. Also, make sure to change your oil and filter regularly. A simple maintenance plan will keep your car in top condition for many years.

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Keeping a vehicle stored in a garage away from the elements will also help to protect it from damage and rust. If you need a better door, consider Garage Doors Gloucester at https://www.upandoverdoorsltd.co.uk/garage-doors/garage-doors-gloucester/

Regularly clean your vehicle. A dirty car will not last long. Road grit and mud can damage the finish of your car’s paint and erode its structural integrity. Clean your car at least once a month, and vacuum the floor mats and upholstery. Remove sand and grit to extend the life of these vital components. Keeping your car clean can make all the difference in the quality of your ride.

Make sure you keep your car away from extreme temperatures. You can use a car wash to keep it in top condition. When doing a regular car wash, remember to clean the undercarriage of dirt and grime too.

Groundworks Jargon Explained

Confused by groundwork jargon? There are lots of things that are used in construction that the average person probably hasn’t heard of, like this electric tapping machine https://www.cotswold-machinery-sales.co.uk/roscamat-tapping-machines/electric-tapping-machines/roscamat-tiger-electric-tapping-machine/ . If you are wanting to get to know more about groundworks in particular however you have come to the right place. Here are some explanations of the different terminology you might come across:

Backdrop

Where underground drains run, they must go lower but it is not always possible to increase the downward slope exceeding certain limits as anything other than a clear liquid would be left. The way to solve this is to build a hole where it came at the top and impurities are then free-falling vertical pipe in the hole to a new lower level. The advantage of this method is that the hole is easily accessible for rodding out any blockages. This hole is called a backdrop.

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Benching

Channels in the bottom of the hole are finished with smoothing mortar made to form a cleaner slope. This is called the benching. Sometimes benching will rupture causing it to block.

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Bit-mac

Bitumen Macadam is a coated aggregate, which is put down hot onto a road surface and driveway. It is normally placed as two basic layers with a base layer and a coarse layer. Solid bitmac is the name given to a graded rock where smooth stones mix in to complete the gaps and add power. It is often used for heavily trafficked roads or driveways.

Blinding

This is a sand topping around 30-50mm placed on the surface of the sub-base to prevent the topping from running into the sub-base. The blinding also allows the topping to move independently of the sub-base. When you need help with a groundworks project, consider Groundwork companies Bristol at a site like Chew Valley Construction, a top name in Facilities management companies Bristol.

Brushed Concrete

The concrete surface is smoothed and then finished with a soft broom dragged across it to provide grip.

Damp proof membrane

Damp proof membrane is placed directly under the concrete floor slabs of concrete to avoid issues with rising damp. It is also often used over blinding to provide a non-slip membrane to ensure there is no binding between the layers.

Formation

Deepest point in an excavation for a drive or a terrace, which is flattened and smoothed before laying the sub-base.

Hepsleve

A trade name for very tough clay pipes that are connected with a plastic collar.

Plastic

Plastic pipes are often used in underground drainage in the country, as they are lighter and longer than clay pipes. The disadvantage is that the pipes are not as strong and may have to be encased in concrete under certain conditions, negating any flexible quality. In such circumstances, clay may be a better option.

Salt-glazing

Before the current pipes of today were used, pipes used to be made from baked clay. The clay pipes used to be covered with a clear glaze that was kiln-fired to guarantee a smooth impermeable surface. These pipes were joined with sand / cement and tarred hemp.

Spoil

Material excavated from the excavation site, which can be referred to as muck is removed from the site.

Sub-Base

The coarse fills such as hardcore or crushed stone form a strong frost-resistant base and cushions to spread the load. It is usually at least 100mm thick.

Tamped concreteCompacting concrete surface with long heavy boards leaves shallow ridges behind. shallow mountain. These ridges should be shallow to allow the water to drain.

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