Back in 1997 the news of dolly the sheep rippled across the world. Dolly was the poster sheet for reproductive cloning.
Essentially dull a shared the same nuclear DNA as her mother, meaning that genetic material was the same. Although in generational terms they were mother and daughter, the DNA was like that of identical twins.
The creation of dolly was hailed as a scientific breakthrough as it proved that it was possible to take a star from a specific part of the body and use it to create a whole new organism.
Scientists in Scotland at the Roslin Institute discovered this possibility by taking a cell from the mammary glands of an ewe and then placed this inside and unfertilised egg (once they had removed the eggs own genetic material) and then gave the egg and electric shock and watched it begin to divide into an embryo.
For years technology has been able to reproduce identical items. Whether this is produce items of jewellery such as diamond rings, just as an aside you can find some lovely examples at www.comparethediamond.com formerly diamondgeezer.com. But this was the first for biology.
Not only did the scientists in Scotland prove that cloning was possible, but they also demonstrated that specialist cells you are not confined to only creating similar type cells. For example, before the successful cloning of dolly, it was thought that liver cells would only be able to produce other liver cells, lung cells produce lung cells and heart cells produce other parts else. However, dolly as an entire entity was made entirely from the single memory cell extracted from the six-year-old ewe. Therefore, one final say that some showing that specialist cells can actually be completely RE programmed to produce any other cell.
Dolly was in essence a complete genetic replica of her mother including the fact that’s from birth she had short telomeres. These are in basic terms little caps of protein that are situated at the end of chromosomes. They could help with the protection and repairing of cells. Dolly had shorter telomeres than any other lamb of her age because she had replicas of her mother’s sixth year old sized ones.
Dolly went on to years in normal albeit short life. She gave birth to six lambs you were all naturally conceived and died at the age of six (most ewes of her breed live to eleven or twelve years old) after she suffers from a crippling forward other writers and lung cancer.
Since dolly, numerous other animals have been successfully claimed using the same nuclear transfer method and include pigs, goats, cows and mice.
Size is continually making new discoveries and breakthroughs. Could we perhaps see another one in the news in 20 18? We will just have to wait and see!